Georgia is situated in the western and central parts of Transcaucasia. It is surrounded by the main Caucasian mountain range on the North and by the branches of the main range on the East and the South and the Black Sea on the West. The whole history of the country mostly lived on this territory. The state borders of irgia have been changing, expanding and In inking for centuries. The central region of Georgia is Kartli. The name of the people "Kartveli" and the name of the country "Sakartvelo" have originated from this word. The Georgians are one of the most ancient peoples in the world. In the third millennium BC there existed a single pre-Georgian language. The spoken languages Svanuri (in the second millennium BC) and Megruli (in the first millennium BC) were separated from the main language. The Georgian literary language was based on and developed from the Georgian language proper. The favorable natural conditions, diversity of her rich nature and the location on the cross-road of different great civilizations in different epochs. The routes connecting the East and the West, the South and the North functioned with various intensity at different stages of history. The geopolitical location was favorable for the contacts with other civilized countries on the one hand, but on the other brought country into the sphere of interests of great Empires. North Caucasian nomadic peoples also created great difficulties for Georgia, ravaging the country and settling on its territory during centuries.